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Franz Joseph Haydn

By

Franz Joseph Haydn

Born:

March 31, 1732 – Rohrau, Austria

Died:

May 31, 1809 – Vienna

Haydn Quick Facts:

  • Haydn and Mozart were friends. They respected each other's music and occasionally invited one another to their performances.
  • Haydn composed 104 symphonies!
  • Unlike Wagner, Haydn was warm and heartfelt. He was caring, loving, extremely intelligent, and very well controlled.

Haydn's Family Background:

Haydn was one of three boys born to Mathias Haydn and Anna Maria Koller. His father was a master wheelwright who loved music. He played the harp, while Haydn’s mother sang the melodies. Anna Maria was a cook for Count Karl Anton Harrach before she married Mathias. Haydn’s brother, Michael, also composed music and became relatively famous. His youngest brother, Johann Evangelist, sang tenor in the church choir of the Esterhazy Court.

Childhood:

Haydn had a spectacular voice and his musicality was precise. Johann Franc, impressed by Haydn’s voice, insisted that Haydn’s parents allow Haydn to live with him to study music. Franc was a school principal and the choir director of a church in Hainburg. Haydn’s parents allowed him to go in hopes that he would amount to something very special. Haydn studied mostly music, but also Latin, writing, arithmetic, and religion. Haydn spent most of his childhood singing in church choirs.

Teenage Years:

Haydn trained his younger brother Michael when he joined the choir school three years later; it was customary for the older choirboys to instruct the younger ones. Although great Haydn's voice was, he lost it when he went through puberty. Michael, who also had a beautiful voice, received the attention Haydn was used to getting. Haydn was dismissed from the school when he was 18.

Early Adult Years:

Haydn earned a living by becoming a freelance musician, teaching music, and composing. His first steady job came in 1757, when he was hired as music director for Count Morzin. His name and compositions steadily became recognizable. During his time with Count Morzin, Haydn wrote 15 symphonies, concertos, piano sonatas, and possibly string quartets op.2, nos. 1-2. He married Maria Anna Keller on November 26, 1760.

Mid Adult Years:

In 1761, Haydn began his lifelong relationship with the wealthiest family among Hungarian nobility, the Esterhazy family. Haydn spent nearly 30 years of his life here. He was hired as vice-Kapellmeister earning 400 gulden a year, and as time went on, his salary increased as well as his ranking within the court. His music became widely popular.

Late Adult Years:

From 1791, Haydn spent four years in London composing music and experiencing life outside the royal court. His time in London was the high point of his career. He earned nearly 24,000 gulden in a single year (the sum of his combined salary of nearly 20 years as Kapellmeister). Haydn spent the last years of his life in Vienna composing only vocal pieces such as masses and oratorios. Haydn passed away in the middle of the night from old age. Mozart’s Requiem was performed at his funeral.

Selected Works by Haydn:

Symphony

  • Symphony No. 34, d minor - 1765
  • Symphony No. 35, B flat Major - 1767
  • Symphony No. 36, E flat Major - 1769
  • Symphony No. 37, C Major - 1758
  • Symphony No. 38, C Major - 1769
  • Symphony No. 39, G Major - 1770
  • Symphony No. 40, F Major - 1763
  • Symphony No. 94, "Surprise Symphony", G Major - 1791
  • Symphony No. 95, c minor - 1791
  • Symphony No. 96, D Major - 1791
  • Symphony No. 97, C Major - 1792
  • Symphony No. 98, B flat Major - 1792
  • Symphony No. 99, E flat Major - 1793
  • Symphony No. 100, "Military", G Major - 1793/4

Mass

  • Missa Sancti Bernardi von Offida (Heiligmesse), B flat Major - 1796
  • Missa in tempore belli (Kriegsmesse; Paukenmesse), C Major -1796
  • Missa (Nelsonmesse; Imperial Mass; Coronation Mass), d minor - 1798

Oratorio

  • Die Schöpfung (The Creation) - 1796-8
  • Die Jahreszeiten (The Seasons) - 1799-1801

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